Book: Principles of Human Organs-on-Chips (Link) (pdf)

Chapter #9: Kidney-on-a-chip (Link) (pdf)

Kidney toxicity represents the most common adverse event resulting from drugs, and its assessment is critical for drug development. The application of two-dimensional (2D) in vitro and animal models to evaluate drug efficacy have their shortcomings due to the lack of representation of in vivo environment for the first, or the difference in drug pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics response between animals and human for the latter. In this regard, three-dimensional (3D) microfluidic culture platforms such as kidney-on-chip have shown great promise in recapitulating native tissues in vitro. In recent years, significant attempts have also been made in the modeling of kidney diseases to study pathology and characterize potential drugs. Moreover, the fabrication of multiple-kidney components-on-a-chip, wherein different structures and cells interact with each other, remains a major issue. In this chapter, we focus more on the components of kidney-on-chip and the applications of kidney-on-a-chip.

Book: Harnessing Materials for X-ray Based Cancer Therapy and Imaging (Link) (pdf)

Chapter: Nanoparticle Based CT Contrast Agents (Link) (pdf)

The increasing significance of computed tomography (CT) which is one of the most widely used radiological methods in biomedical imaging, has accelerated the development of nanoparticles as next-generation CT contrast agents. Nanoparticles are predicted to play a significant role in the future of medical diagnostics due to their several benefits over conventional contrast agents, such as longer blood circulation time, regulated biological clearance pathways, and precise molecular targeting capabilities. The basic design concepts of nanoparticle-based CT contrast agents will be described in this chapter in comparison to iodine and other commercial products with in vivo and in vitro experiment.

Chapter: ROS-Based Cancer Radiotherapy (Link) (pdf)

Reactive oxygen species (ROS) in cancer cells play a crucial role in metabolic reprogramming, altering tumor microenvironment, regulating cell death, repairing DNA and other physiological functions of living organisms. The unique features of ROS, which underlie the mechanisms indispensable for the aging, fitness, or growth of cells, have opened new route for researchers to take all benefits of these potential species in order to potentiate treatment efficacy and boost medical advances. Radiation therapy (RT) as a common method of cancer treatment, destroys malignant tumors and cells through both direct and indirect mechanisms. In the context of indirect mechanism, radiation could induce the generation of ROS and free radicals, resulting in the induction of cellular stress, injuring biomolecules, and ultimately altering cellular signaling pathways. Accordingly, adjusting ROS generation and elimination in favor of killing cancer cells without impairing normal cells hold promising approach in achieving favorable results in cancer radiotherapy. Over the past few years, nanotechnology-based materials have driven notable progress in medical and biological fields, a large number of nanomaterials with unique ROS-regulating features or nanomaterial-induced ROS formation have been exploited for its potential in modulating the tumor microenvironment and in more particular cancer cells, which contributes to the emergence of a new therapeutic modality. In order to use ROS as a potent weapon in cancer therapy, we need to eludicate its corresponding biology and chemistry as well. Herein, this chapter summarized some recent advances in ROS-based RT in detail to harness the innate powers of ROS for effective tumor therapy. Our demonstration on this emerging field will be very useful to further development of ROS-based fundamental researches and clinical applications in favor of mitigating the burden of cancer treatment.

Book: Electrospun Nanofibers (Link) (pdf)

Chapter #20: Electrospinning and Three-Dimensional (3D) Printing for Biofabrication (Link) (pdf)

Biofabrication of engineered cell-laden constructs and scaffolds is essential for tissue engineering and tissue modeling. Electrospinning is a highly scalable technology to fabricate porous scaffolds with micro or nano-fibrous structure. Three-dimensional (3D) bioprinting has been recently developed for tissue engineering by providing control over cell location and multicellular structure. With the availability of electrospinning techniques, it is possible to combine nano- and microfiber-based structures with 3D bioprinted constructs, to obtain composite structures that have biomimetic or functional features and improved mechanical stability. In addition, electrospun fibers can add various functions such as drug release properties to the developed 3D bioprinted constructs. In this chapter, we will discuss the techniques for electrospinning, 3D bioprinting, and the approach of combining electrospinning and 3D bioprinting for biofabrication. We also highlight current challenges and future research directions.

Book: Engineering Materials for Stem Cell Regeneration (Link) (pdf)

Chapter #13: In Situ Tissue Engineering: A New Dimension (Link) (pdf)

Tissue engineering has evolved to provide ways to construct tissues primarily aiming at replacing lost or damaged tissues or improving function. It has been classically developed using ex vivo means in which cells are generally cultured with biomaterials and subsequently engineered constructs are transplanted into the body. However, this approach is associated with several challenges that have limited its successful translation to the clinic. With in situ tissue engineering, it is possible to stimulate internal body regenerative potential by using biomaterials, biomolecules, and genes, which can reduce risks and challenges associated with ex vivo tissue engineering. In addition, in situ tissue engineering may potentially accelerate the clinical application of the technology and may lead to the development of more effective regenerative therapeutics through a collaborative multidisciplinary approach.